Picture Superiority Effect
People remember pictures easier than words. In advertising, an ad with a picture and words will help consumers to recall a product when they have seen it associated with a picture. I think of this like signs for McDonalds and Wendy’s and Burger King. The same pictures (emblems) are associated with the name of the restaurants on their signs. Children recognize these establishements long before they can actually read the words.
Recognition over Recall
It is easier to recognize something than it is to recall it. That is why children (and adults) cry when teachers give them essay and fill in the answers tests as opposed to multiple choice. In multiple choice, you might not be able to scream out the answer, but may recognize it once you see it as a choice. Kind of like an agh ha moment.
Serial Position Effects
This is when people try to recall items from a list and how it is easier to recall the items at the beginning and also the ones at the end. Kind of like the middle child syndrome. (I am the oldest and my sister used to cry about this all the time growing up). It was interesting to learn that if you are teaching something visual, you should present the most important facts at the beginning and the opposite if you are teaching something auditory.